Fiona Zakaria (Indonesia)

PhD fellow

IHE Delft│Netherlands

Rethinking emergency sanitation (Netherlands, the Philippines and Kenya)

This study focuses on technology application to address the limitation in technical options by developing a smart emergency toilet called eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) Smart Toilet. This toilet is based on the eSOS concept that takes into account the entire sanitation chain. The initial design was built into an experimental toilet prototype, which was then evaluated under real usage in an emergency camp in Tacloban City, the Philippines. This field research in the Philippines aimed to evaluate various operational aspects of the toilet. These aspects were design related but the aim was also to obtain new knowledge as the result of the toilet’s sophisticated monitoring system. The field research evaluated the usage and operation, certain smart features, characterisation of the generated faecal sludge and urine streams, and the user acceptance. Furthermore the study focused on technology application to address the limited time for planning in emergencies by developing a decision support system (DSS) to select sanitation options. The aim is to enable users of the DSS to plan their emergency sanitation response within the shortest time possible. The outcome of using the tool that was developed is that it gives the highest rated sanitation system as the most suitable technical sanitation option in the users’ given scenario. The characteristics of the eSOS monitoring system, that can measure and track the material flows, gave the opportunity to estimate the costs of all the activities in one functioning sanitation chain. Cost components are usually missing in general sanitation planning. Often, the cost estimation is only provided for a single sanitation chain, instead of costs for the whole sanitation chain. The study developed a financial flow simulator called the eSOS Monitor to address this gap in sanitation chain cost estimation. The eSOS Monitor adopts the sanitation technology selection by the DSS and then calculates the costs for each chain. The cost summary then also calculates the most important financial indicators that are useful for parties interested in investing in the sanitation business. In general, the main objective of the study was to contribute to a better emergency sanitation response. The results were also applied to the development of decision support tools useful for applications beyond emergencies.

  • 2017│Evaluation of a smart toilet in an emergency camp
    Paper
    By Fiona Zakaria et al.
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  • 2017│User acceptance of the eSOS® smart toilet in a temporary settlement in the Philippines
    Paper
    By Fiona Zakaria et al.
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    (0.0 MB)
  • 2016│Effectiveness of UV-C light irradiation on disinfection of an eSOS® smart toilet evaluated in a temporary settlement in the Philippines
    Paper
    By Fiona Zakaria et al.
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    (0.1 MB)
  • 2015│Decision support system for the provision of emergency sanitation
    Paper
    By Fiona Zakaria et al.
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    (0.1 MB)
  • 2015│eSOS® – emergency Sanitation Operation System
    Paper
    By Fiona Zakaria et al.
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    (0.0 MB)